Car Companies
Electric car companies of the world (by brand), before 1940.

A work in progress, distributed as a research tool. Please send amendments or corrections

Hobby cars after 1904 are generally omitted.
The majority of these marques made proto-types and never produced in volume. "Drive" can mean either the location of the driver's controls or the driveline between the motor and the wheels.

Ajax 1901-1903; Ajax Motor Vehicle Co. New York, NY.
The Simpson brothers made some two-passenger runabouts.

American Electric 1896-1898; American Electric Vehicle Co. Chicago
1898: Merged with Indiana Bicycle Co. to become Waverly.
Incorporated early 1896 by (MIT grad) Clinton Edgar Woods, with capitol stock of $250,000 they had a car on the streets by May. The car featured Baker designed ball bearing axels, solid rubber tires, and twin motor chain drive to the rear wheels.

By 1897 C E Woods was involved in a new company under his own name.
1896-1898 five models, all resembled the open carriages of the time.

Anderson Carriage Co. 1884-1911, Port Huron, then Detroit MI.
See Detroit Electric.

Anthony, Earle C. 1897; at 17 the future Packard dealer and broadcasting pioneer built a simple piano box trap in Los Angeles.

Argo 1912-1914 Argo Electric Vehicle Co. Saginaw MI.
1914-1916 Automatic Electric Transportation Co. Buffalo, NY
1916-1926 Columbia Motors Co of Detroit, J. G. Bayerline Pres. T. E. Barthel Sec. Merged with Broc & Borland in 1914.

1913: Shaft-drive, bevel gear, models with 5 speeds, Westinghouse motors, wheel steering, and Exide batteries.
Model A Brougham, 4 passenger, on a 108" wheelbase; $2,800
Model B Roadster, 4 passenger, 108" WB, $2,500.
Model C Limousine 5 passenger, Fore-drive. 110" WB, $3,250

Arrol-Johnston Dumfries Scotland. In 1913 bought a license to build 50 cars under Detroit Electric (Anderson/Elwell-Parker) design and patents.

Automatic 1914-1916, Automatic Electric Transportation Co, Buffalo NY. Formed by a merger of Argo, Borland, & Broc.

Automatic 1920-1927 Automatic Electric Transmission Company, Buffalo NY. Sold to Walker 1927

1921 2 pass Runabout, 65" WB, 900 lbs, $1,200

Babcock 1906-1912 Babcock Electric Carriage Co. 234 West Utica St. Buffalo, NY. Founded by Francis A Babcock of the Buffalo Electric Co (1903-1915). Babcock merged with his first Co, Buffalo, in 1912. They produced a full range of models. The cars had steering wheels & suicide doors.


Model 1 Runabout, $1,800.
Model 4 4-passenger Stanhope, $2,250.
Model 5 Runabout, $1,600.
Model 6 Victoria Phaeton, $1,800.
Model 7 Brougham, driver high & outside, $4,000.
Model 10 Coupe, $2,200.
Model 11 Town Car, driver in front of windshield, $3,250.
Model 12 Gentleman's Roadster, faux radiator, $2,000.
Model 16 Touring Car, Five-passenger, with faux radiator and cape top. The steering wheel bent over for egress, a twenty hp motor, Edison Battery standard, $3,800

Bailey Electric 1908-1916, S. R. Bailey & Co Amesbury MA.

Samuel Robinson Bailey and Colonel E W M Bailey. Bailey was a carriage builder (and hatmaker) who perfected steam wood-bending machinery for carriage wheels (and hats) around 1870. The bodies featured bent laminated wood. Col. Bailey was known for touring the cars. They were chain driven with a GE motor and the Edison battery.

1911 Victoria Phaeton
1913 Roadster, 2-passenger on a 106" WB, $2,500.
Victoria, 3-passenger, 82" WB, with a smaller battery, $2,600.

Baker 1898-1915 Baker Motor Vehicle Co.
1915-1916 Baker Rauch & Lang

Founded by Walter C. Baker, (1868-1955) with Rollin White president, Fred White treasurer, and the Dorn brothers, Philip and Fredrick. Baker was one of the top motor vehicle innovators of the early era. Although best known for the electric cars that bear his name, and his early land speed records, Baker came up with technologies and manufacturing processes that helped make all cars practical, such as modern ball bearings, steering knuckles, the fully floating rear axle with worm-gear shaft-drive (patented 1901), and vanadium alloy steel. Baker was with the Cleveland Screw Machine Co (a White Sewing Machine spin off) before starting the American Ball Bearing Co and the Baker Motor Vehicle Co in Cleveland. Walter Baker was also involved (from 1900) with the Peerless Motor car Co. Baker bought Justus B Entz's patent for an electromagnetic starter/drive system from White in 1912, and licensed the rights to the R M Owen Co in 1913. This became the Owen Magnetic.

In 1897 Baker, with Fred Dorn, built his first electric, at Cleveland Screw. He was not working in a vacuum; Sperry was working on his cars there, and his friend C. E. Woods probably offered advice.

1899: Runabout, 2-passenger, 550 lbs with ten cells and a 3/4 HP motor. Chain drive to the rear axle, two speeds forward, one in reverse, and an advertised range of twenty miles. Edison bought the second one made.
1902: A Stanhope was offered as a town runabout.

Baker builds his race cars. The 3,000 lb, $10,000, tandem seat, Torpedo (sling seats with seat belts) with a 12 HP Elwell-Parker motor, and the 750 lb, single seat, Torpedo Kid. On Memorial Day (May 31) Baker drove the Torpedo, with C. E. Denzer in the second seat switching the battery connections as the car gained speed, in a speed test on Staten Island. The Torpedo went over 80 mph. Unfortunately a wheel caught a streetcar track and collapsed causing the car to hit spectators resulting in two fatalities and several injuries. Due to the bad press the car was not raced in public afterwards, but was said to have run as fast as 120 MPH.

1903: Runabout $850, Imperial Carriage or Physicians Chapelette for $1,200, Stanhope Victoria $1,600. Three forward speeds and reverse with a control lever actuated motor brake and a pedal operated emergency brake that operated on the rear axle, with electric lighting.
1904: A motor-front surrey is added at $2,650 with tiller or wheel steering.
1905: Sales of 400 cars.
1906: Baker gives up VP of engineering role, and Emil Gruenfeldt became chief engineer. About 800 cars are made in a new factory.
1907: Baker finally introduces shaft drive into a fast Roadster with 2-bucket seats, a faux-radiator selling for $1,800.
An inside drive Brougham or a Landaulet with the driver in front of the windshield were offered at $4,000.
Baker starts a light truck department.
1908: To the 1907 line add a Queen Victoria, tiller steered, $1,800. And a Roadster, wheel steered, longer wheelbase, w/ faux radiator $2,200.
1909: Baker puts shaft-drive into all models. Baker used Elwell-Parker Motors and Controllers until Anderson purchased the Co.
1910: Four Models from $2,000-$2,600. The voltage was increased from 48 to 56. Baker claims sales of 1,000 cars. On August 30 1910 they ran a car for 201.6 miles on a single charge with a lead battery, later in the year they achieve 244-1/2 miles with an Edison battery. It is likely that at the end of the run the lead battery was scrap and the Edison battery was nearly normal.
1912: A Police patrol wagon is added to the truck line.
1913: Three Models with Exide batteries, and six forward speeds. Wheel steering was optional.
Victoria; 2 passenger, 80" WB, $2,000.
Coupe; 4 passenger, 88" WB. $2,800.
Brougham; 5 passenger, 92" WB, $3,100.
1914: A Roadster with steering wheel replaces the Victoria $2,300.
1915: Baker is merged with Rauch & Lang, to settle R & L's patent infringements, with a capitol value of $2.5 Million. They merge the R. M. Owen Co. into the group in October with Raymond Owen becoming a vice president of Baker-R & L. Also in late 1915 GE became a major investor in the company pumping the capitol value to five million, they got three seats on the board.
1916: The Baker name is retired for passenger cars.

Baker & Elberg 1894-5 Kansas City, MO. A runabout.

Barrows Electric Auto-Buggy Barrows Vehicle Co, 1895-1899, Willimantic CT. Two pass single front wheel drive buggies.

Beardsley 1914-1917 Beardsley Electric Co.
1914-1915 Los Angeles, CA.
1915-1917 Culver City, CA.
Volney S. Beardsley, some 160 cars made in twelve models. One remaining

Bersey 1893-1899 Walter Bersey designed electric buses, cars, and cabs in London UK. The early cabs had 3 1/2 HP Lundell motors, ran at 9 MPH for about 30 miles, and featured quick-change battery boxes. Two companies built 77 cabs to Bersey's design. The cab enterprise lasted from August 1897 to August 1899.

BGS 1899-1906 La Societe de la voiture Bouquet, Garcin, et Schivre France. The company built their own batteries.

Blakeslee 1906-1907, Cleveland OH. Originally the DeMars, later the Williams.

Blimline 1897 Sinking Spring PA. S Blimline. A typical homebuilt piano-box runabout. But this one has its photo in the Smithsonian Collection.

Borland 1903-1914 Borland-Grannis Co Chicago IL.
1914-1916 Saginaw MI with Argo & Broc.
1913: Five models with Exide batteries and GE motors.
L Colonial, 5-passenger with bevel drive on 96" WB $2,500.
L-1 Colonial, 3-passenger as L.
41 Brougham, 5-passenger, chain drive, $2,500.
45 Colonial, 5-passenger, chain drive, $2,700.
60 Limousine, 7-passenger, chain drive, $5,500.

Brecht Automobile Co. 1901-1903 St. Louis MO, 1207 Cass Ave

Broc 1909-1910, Broc Carriage & Wagon Co Cleveland OH.
1910-1914, Broc Electric Vehicle Co, Cleveland
1914-1916, American Broc, Saginaw MI with Argo & Borland-Grannis
Made in moderate numbers these were quality carriages with a solid reputation. The company had several profitable years of steady sales.
1910 Stanhope, and two Coupes with chain drive
1914 Drop the Stanhope, add Broughams with front, rear, or duplex drive. Also one with a steering wheel in front and a foot operated speed control.
They featured Westinghouse motors, Bevel drive, and ranged in price from $2,100 to $3,500.

Brush Electric Co 1886, Cleveland OH. General Manager N. S. Possons designed an electric tricycle to demonstrate their improved lead acid battery. Brush held the US patents for ribbed plates and pasted-plate storage batteries. Charles Brush made a fortune with his carbon arc light and dynamo patents and was a manufacturer of electroplating equipment, electric lighting, carbon rods, storage batteries, and electric motors. Brush was marketing electrical generating and distribution systems for its arc lights two years before Edison. The Brush Co. bought the American rights to the Swan patent for the carbon filament light bulb in 1885. Most of Brush Electric was purchased by Thomson-Houston, which then merged with Edison General Electric, to become General Electric.

Buffalo 1903-1912 Buffalo Electric Co.400 Military Road, Buffalo NY. 1912-1915 Buffalo Electric Vehicle Co.
Founded by Francis A. Babcock, he then formed the Babcock Electric Carriage Co. in 1906. In 1912 his old and new companies merged, along with the Buffalo Automobile Station Co, and the Clark Motor Co. They had Diehl motors, Bevel drive, Philadelphia batteries, and a 100" WB.
1903 A 2 pass Stanhope @ $1,650. Said to go 17 MPH for 50 miles.
1913 A 2 seat roadster and a 4-seat coupe both at $2,600.

Bugatti 1926 & 1931 model 52 Bugatti Baby & Type 56 Electric.

Byrider 1907-1910 Byrider Electric Auto Co, Cleveland OH. John & William A. Byrider. A Victoria based on the Williams, the early model had a 2 1/2 hp motor on a 71" WB, and the later model had a 2 hp motor on a 72" WB steel frame. Both @ $1,800.

California 1900-02 San Francisco, CA. Gasoline, Steam, Electric.

Cantono 1904-1907 E. Cantono, Rome Italy
1904-1907 The Cantono Electric Tractor Co, Canton OH, under license. Several big heavy outside-drive Broughams.

Carpenter 1895 H. H. Carpenter built an electric buggy in Denver, with a battery of his own design.

Casler 1901; 1026 Monadnock Block Chicago IL. B. G. Casler.
Models were advertised from a Runabout for $500 up to $2,500.

Century 1900-1903 Century Motor Vehicle Co, Syracuse NY. Electric & Steam.

Century 1911-1915, Century Motor Co, later Century Electric Car Co, Detroit MI. Used Westinghouse motors. They featured an under-slung chassis.
1913: Brougham, 5-passenger, bevel-drive, $2,550.

Chapman AKA Electromobile 1899-1902 Belknap Motor Co. Portland Main. Built by W H Chapman, it weighed 360 lbs.

Chicago 1912-1914 Chicago Electric Motor Co.
1915-1916 Walker Vehicle Manufacturing Co.
1913: Two models with bevel drive, Westinghouse motors and Exide batteries.
131 Coupe, 3 pass with 96" WB, $2,800.
132 Limousine, 5 pass, 104" WB $3,100.
1914: the first Popemobile.

Church-Field 1912-1913 Church-Field Motor Co., Sibley MI.
Ten-speed electrical motor control with a two-speed planetary gearbox and a Wagner motor. With a Philco battery, on a 100" chassis. Two models were offered a 2 passenger Torpedo for $2,300, and a 5 passenger Coupe for $2,800.

City & Suburban 1901-1905 City & Suburban Electric Carriage Co Ltd. Basically the British version of the Columbia with the platforms from Hartford CT and bodies built in London.

Clark 1903-1905 A. (Albert) F. Clark Co. 1903 a hybrid.

Cleveland (aka Sperry) 1899-1901 Cleveland Machine Screw Co.
Designed by Elmer A. Sperry, a small runabout with the motor on the rear axel. And an early Coupe, the epitome of a phone booth on wheels. Many were shipped to France.

Cleveland 1909-1910 Cleveland Electric Vehicle Co. A Runabout, Victoria, & Coupe with 3-1/2 HP motor & six speed control.

Colonial 1913 4 passenger Coupe, with bevel drive, Westinghouse motor, Willard battery and a tag of $2,700.

Columbia 1896-1899, Columbia Motor-Carriage Co., Hartford CT.
1900-1907 Electric Vehicle Company of New York.
1908-1912 United Motor Vehicle Co (gasoline cars & a hybrid).
This was the first commercially viable personal electric motor car; some 500 electric and 40 gas cars, designed by Hiram Percy Maxim, were made as the Columbia for the Pope bicycle empire before the Electric Vehicle Company engulfed them in early 1900. EVC continued to make electrics under the Columbia brand till 1907. After 1907 the brand continued as gasoline cars. The EVC cars and commercial vehicles were marketed as either Columbia or (briefly) Riker, utilizing the designs and patents of Maxim, Riker, Morris & Salom, and Selden for electric and explosion motorcars. Overcapitalized ($20 million) to the point of guaranteeing failure, the enterprise was liquidated in 1907. The Maxwell-Brisco interests picked up most of the residue. ESB batteries.

1896: Mk I Phaeton, a successful electric prototype. Built on a Crawford Runabout, with an Eddy Electric motor mounted on the rear axel.
Mk II a prototype two stroke gas failure.
1897: Mk III Phaeton, two-passenger, a 2 hp motor. 3 speeds 3, 6, & 12 MPH, weight 2,000 Lbs. Body design by William Hooker Atwood. $1,500
Mk IV Carriage, four-passenger, 2 two horsepower motors, weight 3k lbs.
Mk V Victoria (rear boot).
Mk VI Trap, four-passenger dos-a-dos.
Mk VII gas tricycle. package delivery, or passengers.
Mk VIII Gas Runabout. $1,500
Mk XI Light Delivery, 3,300 Lbs.$2,000
1898: Mk IX a prototype gas car with electric transmission designed by Justus B Entz, chief engineer at ESB. Later it became the Owen Magnetic.
1897-8: Mk XII Victoria Runabout, a doctor's favorite.

The Electric Vehicle Company takes over

1900: Mk XVI Brougham for cab service
Mk XVII Hansom Cab, $3,000.
Mk XIX Surrey, four passenger $1,500
1902: Mk III Still available.
Mk XXXI Victoria or Runabout with removable battery covers, four varieties from $1,000 to $1,600.
Mk XI Delivery or Opera Bus, outside drive in front. $2,000
Mk XVI Extension Front Brougham.
Mk XIX Available as a Surrey, Tonneau, Cabriolet, or Rear Boot Victoria. $1,300 to $2,250
1906: Mk LXVII Landaulet, the last lead cab.
1908: Mk MXLVI Series Hybrid

Columbia 1914-1918 Columbia Electric Vehicle Co, 1705 Dime Bank Building, Detroit MI. Designed by E. T. Birdsall.
1914: Runabout, 2-Pass with cantilever suspension similar to Milburn, $785. A similar "complete" model (with top?) cost $795.

Columbus 1902-1913. Columbus Buggy Co, 509 Dublin Ave. Columbus Ohio
Columbus was the largest of the 550 buggy builders in Ohio, with 800 employees at the turn of the century. Clinton Dewitt Firestone was president; significant employees of the motorcar era included Harvey S Firestone, Lee Frayer, Edward V (Eddie) Rickenbacker, and George M Bacon.
1910 Model 1010 Runabout
1913 Five 4 pass Coupes and a 2 pass Roadster were offered with GE motors, bevel drive and Exide Batteries.

Crowdus 1901-1903 Crowdus Automobile Co 211 E. 57th St Chicago IL

Darling 1901-1902 Beardsley & Hubbs Mfg. Co, Shelby OH

Davenport 1834(+-) a model electric rail car, the first electric toy train

Dayton 1911-1915 Dayton Electric Car Co, Dayton OH
1913 Model 112 Coupe, 4-pass, with Exide battery, Westinghouse motor, and bevel drive on an 86" chassis.

DeMars 1904-1906 DeMars Electric Vehicle Co, Cleveland OH. A small chain-drive 1 HP Runabout. Later this car was built as the Blakeslee, then Williams.

Detroit Electric 1906-1911 Anderson Carriage Co
1911-1919 Anderson Electric Car Co
1919-1932 Detroit Electric Car Co
1933-1939 (1968) Detroit Electric Vehicle Manufacturing Co

These companies made Detroit Electric cars from 1907 to 1939 in Detroit Michigan. They also made trucks from 1910 to 1916, car bodies on contract till 1919, and ambulance bodies 1916-1919. The last iteration of the Company remained on Michigan corporate records as a dormant company till the late sixties. The most successful manufacturer of electric cars in the twentieth century, with over 12,300 Pleasure cars, and 535 trucks. They manufactured very dependable cars, with quality coachwork featuring curved quarter windows, aluminum body panels and roof.

Detroit Electric was no leader in innovation. When coachbuilder Rauch & Lang decided on electric propulsion for their luxury carriages in 1905, Anderson followed the next year. When Rauch & Lang purchased (merged with) their main electrical component supplier in 1907 Detroit bought their main supplier (Elwell-Parker) in 1909. After Baker introduced shaft drive in 1906, Detroit introduced it in 1911. Ohio introduced Double Drive cars in 1913, Detroit the Duplex Drive in 1914. After Milburn introduced the "Milburn Light Electric" in late 1914, for thirty percent less money, Detroit introduced their cheaper "Light Chassis" cars in 1917.

The archetypical Detroit is the classic "Cinderella's Coach" Brougham that dominated sales from 1912 to 1919. They were available in four and five passenger bodies with tiller controls at the rear seat, the front, or both. As early as 1908 the company attempted to appeal to the sporting gentleman with a series of faux radiator cars that resembled the gasoline cars of the time. This was abandoned during the peak sales years between 1914 and 1918 to be revived in 1919 when the company split into three parts and the surviving electric car company had no body factory. The majority of the bodies 1919-1921 were from the HM Body Co in Racine Wisconsin. The Broughams from that time on were old stock from when the factory was going full tilt just two years earlier. The last entirely new car was made mid 1926, and the balance of cars sold as "new" ('til February of 1939) were remanufactured cars with borrowed (Willys, Dodge) bodies.
At least 110 remaining cars and 1 truck.

Dey 1915, Dey Electric Corporation; 1915-1917 Dey Electrical Vehicle Syndicate, New York. Harry E. Dey. A 1,400 lb runabout with a motor designed by Charles Proteus Steinmetz that had a spinning field. The armature was connected to one drive wheel and the armature the other, creating an electric motor/differential. Intended to compete with the cheaper gasoline cars it sold for $985.

Dickson 1893 Dickson's Carriage Works Ontario, Canada

Dudley Bug 1915 Menominee Electric Mfg. Co, Menominee MI. A 2-seat runabout, about 100 made.

Eastman 1899-1902 H E Eastman, Cleveland OH. A tricycle with all-steel body.

Edison Although he left the driving to an employee, or his wife Mina, or his son Charles, Edison owned a lot of electric cars. Starting with an 1897 Columbia Mk III, he then bought the second Baker made (1899), a circa 1907 Studebaker, a Woods, a 1909 Bailey, a 1910 Waverley, in 1911 the Edison Storage Battery Co. got an all blue Detroit Electric Victoria, the family got a very fancy 1911 Rauch & Lang outside drive Brougham, and a 1914 model 47 Detroit Electric Brougham. As usual he thought he could do a better job of it, so he built an electric locomotive for Menlo Park (it ran about 1,500 feet to a fishing hole), announced the production of a "new" light delivery truck in 1910 (Lansden), and contributed to the design of the two Ford electric car prototypes in 1914.

Edison thought what was needed was not a better car but a better battery. He put much of his time and personal fortune into developing an alkaline secondary battery. It was (eventually) good enough to recover his investment (with the help of a Navy contract in 1915), but not cheap enough or efficient enough to save the battery automobile.

Electric Carriage and Wagon Co. 1896-1898 Founded by Henry G. Morris and Pedro G. Salom in January 1896, Capitol of $10,000 came from George Herbert Condict, with Electric Storage Battery Co. owners W. W. Gibbs and Isaac L. Rice, to build taxi cabs based on the Electrobat. They had thirteen cabs built by the Charles S. Caffrey Co of Camden NJ. Each had an 800 lb, ESB built, Cloride-Manchester battery, and a pair of 1-1/2 HP Lundell motors. They ran them with some success in New York from March of 1897 with 12 active cabs & drivers, and a staff of six at the charging station. Rice took over on September 27th 1897, he made about 90 more cabs before the "lead cab syndicate" made him a generous offer, see Electric Vehicle Company.

Electra 1913-1915 Electra Storage Battery Power Co. Chicago, IL.
1913 Model C 2-pass Roadster, with proprietary motor, Fiaschke Battery, Bevel drive, on a 90" WB, for $750.

Electric Vehicle Co. 1899-1907 the new name of the Electric Carriage and Wagon Co. re-formed by financiers (William C. Whitney, P. A. B. Widener, Anthony N. Brady, Thomas F. Ryan, et. al.) to create a taxicab monopoly (first in New York, then in all major cities). They bought the company and merged it with Pope's car division Columbia Motor-Carriage (to make the taxies) in April of 1899 as the Columbia Automobile Company, then in May it was reorganized as the Columbia and Electric Vehicle Company when Pope was bought out in June 1900. The company finally became part of the Whitney led holding company, the Electric Vehicle Company (EVC), of which the most profitable holding was the Electric Storage Battery Co of Philadelphia, as their profit was in battery sales rather then the success of the taxi enterprises. The personal holdings of the financiers were weighed toward ESB stock. They acquired Riker in December 1900 for his patents and manufacturing plant (he quit EVC January 1st 1902). As many as 1,000 cabs were built by various acquired coachworks and contractors, including 100 bodies by Studebaker that were ordered in June 1899. The early design lead battery weighed about a ton and was removed and recharged after every trip. As usual the battery eventually killed the vehicle (with tire and employee problems also significant). The cab company in New York was moderately profitable and lasted till 1912 (with the electric cab fleet diluted by gasoline cabs after 1907, they were gone by 1910). The monopoly scheme was partly based on ESB owning the battery patents of Charles F Brush, A Marchenay (US rights), General Electric, Consolidated Electric Storage, Electric Launch & Navigation, and others (they could refuse batteries to other cab makers). To cover all bases, and to continue production of Maxim's Gas cars, they also acquired the rights to Rochester patent attorney George Selden's "liquid hydrocarbon motor carriage" patent (two-stroke engine) for ten thousand dollars and a promise of future royalties. EVC had more debt then their income could support and did not survive the 1907 bank panic (with the collapse of 73 banks). ESB went their own way, the Selden patent expired in 1912 three years after what was left of the company lost the infringement suit against Ford, as the four-stroke engines they used were judged not in breach. Both the cab business and the monopoly strategies failed, and the investors lost millions of dollars. Eventually the Maxwell-Briscoe Motor Co group of Long Island City, NY acquired the residue.

Electrette The 1906-1908 Lansden Co, Newark NJ

Electrobat 1894-1896, Morris & Salom, Philadelphia. Pedro Salom was a chemist and Henry Morris a mechanical engineer; they had backgrounds in battery streetcars and in 1894 (as the battery streetcar business was fading) teamed up to make battery road vehicles. The first Electrobat was a slow, heavy, impractical vehicle. Morris & Salom went on to build about a dozen Hansom cabs based on the Electrobat before selling the concept and the cabs to Isaac Rice of Electric Storage Battery (see Electric Carriage & Wagon Co).

Type I 1894; 4,250 lbs with a 1,600 lb battery. Said to go 50 miles at up to 15 mph. It had steel tires to support the weight. Built like a small version of a battery streetcar.
Type II 1895; this vastly improved vehicle weighed 1,650 lbs. with a 640 lb battery. With two 1 1/2 hp motors, pneumatic tires, 25 miles per charge at 20 MPH. The body was designed and built at the Charles S Caffery Carriage Co, across the river in Camden New Jersey, (with the help of Walter C Baker's bearings and axles). They steered by the rear wheels.
Type III no info.
Type IV Late 1895; 800 lbs with a 350 lb battery, two 75 lb motors, 15 mph for 20-25 miles.

Electromobile 1901-1920 London England, a sizeable maker of electrics

Electromotion 1900-1908 a Parisian 4-seater

Entz 1897 Justus B Entz, chief engineer at Electric Storage Battery (Philadelphia), designed a gas car, with electric drive transmission, built as the proto-type Columbia Mk IX by the Pope Manufacturing Company. Hiram P Maxim unintentionally destroyed this car on its test run. This design was eventually made as the Owen Magnetic. See Baker, Owen Magnetic, and Pope.

Erie 1897 Erie and Sturges, Los Angeles CA

Fanning 1902-1903 F J Fanning Manufacturing Co, Chicago IL

Flanders Electric 1911-1914 Flanders Manufacturing Co, Pontiac MI.
A consolidation of the Grant & Wood Manufacturing Co, Pontiac Motorcycle Co, Pontiac Drop Forge Co, Pontiac Foundry Co, and the Vulcan Gear Works. Capitalized @ $2.5 million. Named after the company director and machine tool wizard Walter Flanders. Flanders set up the tooling and production line for the first Ford model T and was the "F" of E M F corp. E. Le Roy Pelletier rescued the Company in 1913 after Studebaker bought EMF. Before getting Walter's permission to use his name he briefly called the car a Tiffany. Walter Flanders went on to produce the Maxwell.
Fewer than 100 Flanders/Tiffany were made

1911 A light low Coupe with worm drive. Marketed to the male driver. $1,775
1913 a 4 pass Victoria for $2,200 and a 5 pass Colonial for $2,500. 100" WB, in-house batteries. They had Timmerman motors and worm drive. Studebaker built the bodies.

Ford 1913-1914 Ford Motor Company. Ford and Edison collaborated on a pair of prototypes, but the results were not impressive and Ford's tractors along with the shift to a war economy distracted Henry.

Fritchle 1908-1917 Fritchle Automobile & Battery Co, Denver CO. Oliver Parker Fritchle made lead batteries of his own design. In 1905 he set up a full service carriage house for electric cars, charging the batteries at night and delivering the cars, clean and ready, every morning. He was not all that impressed with his customers cars so he started building his own electrics.

1908: Fritchle drove one of his Victorias from Lincoln Nebraska to New York, about 1,800 miles.
1913: four models with proprietary motors and batteries, bevel drive. A Roadster, a Runabout, a Coupe and a Brougham. From $2,400 to $3,600.
1916: A hybrid is offered but it doesn't save the company

Gallia 1904-1915 Galliette, Societe l'Electric, Ste. Paris France

General Electric The GE we all know was formed in 1892. Shoe manufacturer Charles Coffin put together a consortium to purchase the American Electric Co. from Elihu Thomson and Edwin Houston in 1883. He named the new company Thomson-Houston Electric. They then purchased Brush Manufacturing in 1889 and Sprague Electric Railway and Motor Co 1n 1900. In 1892 Coffin and Drexel-Morgan led Wall Street consolidators to make a near monopoly by merging with its main competitor the Edison General Electric Co, creating the General Electric Co. The management for the new company was all from Thomson-Houston, which, though smaller, was more profitable. Other then a few prototypes around 1900, including a series hybrid in 1902, GE did not make electric cars, though they made the components for many manufactures, and in late 1915 became a major investor (2.5 million) in Baker Rauch & Lang to produce the Owen Magnetic.

General Electric 1898-1899 General Electric Automobile Co, Philadelphia PA
1899 Brougham, said to run at 20 mph.

General Vehicle Co 1906-1912 (GeVeCo) a GE subsidiary that made electric trucks. Originally called Vehicle Equipment Co.

GMC Electrics 1912-1924 General Motors Truck Company, Pontiac MI. John M Lansden Jr (see Lansden, Edison) started the electric truck and bus division. GMC made electric trucks in eight sizes from 1/2 ton to 6 tons. Of course GM eventually made the EV1 from 1996-1999, they only produced 1,117 cars before pulling the plug.

Grinnell 1912-1915 Grinnell Electric Car Co, Detroit MI. Originally Phipps-Grinnell
1913 Two Coupes were offered, a 94" WB model for $2,800, and a 96" WB model for $2,950. They had Westinghouse motors and bevel drive.

Hagen 1903-1908 An active German manufacturer of electric cars and cabs

Healy 1903-1916 Healy & Co, New York. This custom coachbuilder made about 25 front-wheel-drive electric cars to order. The first client was the car's designer W. H. Douglas of New Jersey.

Henshel 1899-1906 Berlin, Germany; electric and gasoline cars and cabs.

Hercules 1907 James Mac Naughton Co. Chicago IL, 2 & 4 seat models

Holtzer-Cabot 1891-3 Holtzer-Cabot Co an electrical manufacturer in Brookline MA built an enclosed and an open electric coach for Fisk Warren. The enclosed coach carried four. had a steering wheel, and used an Immisch motor that Mr Warren had obtained in England. The later open car used ball bearings and had a series wound 4-pole 7 HP motor weighing 450 lbs. The handlebar steered carriage could accommodate eight passengers.

Hoosier Scout 1914 Warren Electric & Machine Co, Indianapolis IN

Hub 1899-1900, Hub Motor Co, Chicago IL. This car utilized a motor in the hub of all four wheels (similar to the Porsche design of 1900). Westinghouse made the cars in Pittsburg.

Hupp-Yeats 1911; Hupp-Yeats Electric Car Company.
1911-1912 Hupp Corporation, 101-185 Lycaste St.

1912-1919 R-C-H Corporation 133 Lycaste St, both in Detroit MI.

Robert Craig Hupp worked for Olds and Ford, in 1908 he founded Hupmobile with his younger brother Louis. As with his former employers, his idea of a car company was different then that of his financial backers, and he sold out in 1911 to found his own company. The old company owned his name so the new car was called a Hupp-Yeats. Better batteries were available and the new car was electric, featuring luxury coaches with a low hung body for ease of egress, lower center of gravity, and a more modern style. They used bevel shaft-drive and Westinghouse motors.

1911: 1-A Regent Coupe, four-passenger, 86" wheel base, 9" ground clearance, $1,750.
1912: 1-A (as above), 2-A Torpedo Roadster, 1-B Patrician Coupe 100" WB, 2-B Patrician Torpedo Roadster 100" WB,
1913: 4-passenger Regent Coupe with an Exide battery for $1,750.

Immisch 1888 Immisch & Company London. A motor maker.
A dogcart, four passengers dos-a-dos, full elliptical springs front and rear. Belt drive to the right rear wheel with the motor (made by Immisch) bolted to the underside of the carriage. Central pivot steering by means of spur and crown gears.

Interurban 1905 F. A. Woods Auto Co, Chicago IL.
A one-passenger car with two interchangeable motor axels the main one was electric but for long trips one could swap it out for the 2-cylinder gas motor axle. The entire axle pivoted for steering.

Ivanhoe 1901-1904 Toronto ON. Canadian Cycle and Motor Co.

Jeantaud (1881) 1893-1906 Charles Jeantaud, Paris, made a variety of electric vehicles, but the bulk of production was cabs. He set land speed records in 1898 at 39.24 mph and in 1899 at 43.69 mph. Jeantaud built an experimental electric in 1881 on a Tilbury style buggy, with a Gramme motor and Fulmen battery. He continued to use this buggy as his experimental platform until he started production in 1893. Most models had wheel steering.

Jenatzy 1898-1903 Jenatzy-Martini, Brussels. Camille Jenatzy designed and built electric and gas cars. In 1899 he beat the Jeantaud land speed record in his torpedo bodied car "Jamais Contente" at 66 mph. in 1901 he made some gas electric hybrids.

Joel 1899-1902 National Motor Carriage Syndicate Ltd. London.
A two-motor chain drive car.

Kammann 1903 Kammann Manufacturing Co.
Aluminum body and pneumatic seats.

1893; Chicago. Emil E. Keller and Fred Dagenhart made two or three of the thousand electric tricycles they had promised for the Columbian Exposition. Keller got his patent (#523354) for an Electrically Propelled Perambulator July 24, 1894.

Kensington 1899-1903 Kensington Automobile Co, Buffalo NY

1910-1913 C. P. Kimball & Co Chicago IL
Victoria, a chain drive throw back, 2-piece drop down windshield, leather fenders.

Krieger 1894-1909 Indusmine , Paris. Louis Antoine Krieger (1868-1951). He designed his own drive motors with a second set of parallel windings for regenerative braking. Mostly large heavy outside drive Broughams for cabs.

1903-1906 these were the hybrid vehicles, (Richard) Brasier was a gas car company owned by Indusmine, same parent as Krieger.

Lansden 1904-1912 Lansden Co, Newark NJ then Danbury CT. Trucks and a few cars (the Electrette) designed by John M Lansden Jr, with financial and technical support from Tom Edison. In 1908 Edison bought the entire company. Lansden left in 1911 to set up an electric truck division at General Motors.

Lohner (AKA Lohner-Porsche) 1898-1915 Ludwig Lohner, Vienna Austria. After a bad experience trying to mount a gas engine to a carriage, coachbuilder Lohner hired Bela Egger's firm to electrify it. The Egger motors kept burning out, so Lohner hired the companyís bright young electrical engineer, Ferdinand Porsche, to design a whole new car as a pure electric. The car featured hub-motors built into the drive wheels, most models had two drive wheels and one car had four. He soon redesigned the car as a hybrid for greater range. Mercedes (Daimler) sales representative Emil Jellinek bought five of the cars for resale in 1901, and later became an owner of the company. They were nice fast cars (on a smooth road) but a bit expensive.

1899: prototypes are built
1900: a front wheel drive Bat-Dash Stanhope was displayed at the Paris Expo.
1901: First production year, three open cars and an outside drive Brougham are offered. They also made one four wheel drive car and several hybrids.
1915 final production year
The company is thought to have made 272 electric vehicles and 7 hybrids; 153 passenger cars, 75 cabs, 67 fire engines, 29 buses, and 23 trolleybuses.

London Electrical Cab Co. Nov. 12, 1896-1899. Successor to Ward (UK). Other companies under the corporate umbrella built the vehicles. The electrical manager was Walter C Bersey, who had patented an electric car in 1894 (UK#231,523). The first cabs were on the street August 19 1897, weighed two tons, and used a 2.2 KW Lundell Motor. In 1898 they were replaced by 71 Growler style cabs, in August 1899 the business was liquidated. The biggest problem was tyres.

Milburn Light Electric
1914-1923, The Milburn Wagon Co Toledo Ohio;
Founded by George Milburn (1820-1883) in 1848. The Milburn Wagon Co was the biggest of the 550 carriage companies in Ohio and one of the most successful wagon and carriage companies in America. By 1914 the horse carriage business was fading fast as the Ford model T came to dominate rural transportation. Much of Milburn's business by then was in making bodies for automobile manufacturers. With the expiration of electric motor and control patents, and with the new industry wide automotive patent sharing agreement, Milburn saw an opportunity to get a share of the electric car market by combining proven technologies with the efficient, highly mechanized, body assembly techniques that kept the company the price point leader in carriages and car bodies. Throughout the electric car days they made more gas car bodies on contract then electric cars. Designed by Karl Probst (later of Bantam Jeep fame), as a much lighter (2,100 lbs), less expensive car. The company came up with their own version of shaft-drive with a very large nickel-steel worm gear driving a relatively small bronze alloy worm wheel. The components were made by other companies (the motor and controller were made by General Electric). The electric car plant had perhaps two acres of floor space and 200 employees. The lower price point made the Milburn popular, and slightly more competitive with the cheaper gas cars. Milburn became the last significant manufacture of electric cars in the pre-WWII era, with 3,000 to 4,300 units. In late 1919 the original factory burned down and manufacture moved to the grounds of the University of Toledo. In February 1923 the company's coach-works (that mostly made Buick bodies by 1921) was purchased by General Motors to build Oldsmobile bodies.

1910: The first Ohio Electrics are made at the Milburn plant
1915: The early cars were painted Milburn Blue unless special order, with worm drive and a 100" wheelbase. The vehicles had a 40 Volt Battery. This proved to be false economy as range was too limited and a motor/dynamo was required for charging the battery from a mains supply. The motto for 1915 was "weighs nearly ton less", they got heavier. In 1916 Milburn went to an 60 Volt system with a longer chassis and half elliptical springs in front.

Model 15 Coupe, 4 passenger $1,485
Model 16 light delivery truck, $850 sans body, bodies started at $100
Model 151 Roadster, 3-passenger $1,285.
1916: Model 22 Brougham, 4-passenger, 105" WB, Available with 22 or 40 cell battery $1,685, other colors are offered.
Model 151 $1,285
1917: A dozen custom 5 passenger cabs made for American Motor Livery Co, Chicago. The Roadster is dropped due to disappointing sales
Model 27 Coupe.
1918: The Delivery is dropped.
Model 27L 5 pass Brougham, $1,885, made thru 1923.
Model 30(?) Sedan with a faux radiator and quick exchange battery boxes $2,785
Model 36L Touring/Limousine, $2,985
1922: Model 27F 4 pass Brougham.

Milde 1898-1910 Milde Fils et Cie, Paris France; Charles Milde, electric and hybrid cars.

Morrison Electric 1887-1891 Des Moines, IA; William Morrison 1850(?)-1927. Born in Scotland Morrison arrived in Des Moines in 1880 as a chemist. In 1887 he made an unsuccessful attempt to build a car but the center-pivot steering didn't work. He then commissioned a fringe top surrey from the Des Moines Buggy Company, that he electrified in September of 1890, to demonstrate his new battery (patented 1891 With L. Schmidt). It may have been the first land vehicle steered with a wheel, and featured his patented rack and pinion steering gear (Immisch may have done both a year earlier). Watchmaker Dr. Lew Arntz did the mechanical modifications. Powered by 24 of his lead-acid storage cells (48 Volts) with 112 Ampere-hours capacity it weighed two tons. A spur gear on a four horse-power Siemens trolley-car motor, that Morrison rewound to work at a lower voltage more practical for battery application (about 15% of trolley car voltage), this drove a large ring gear on the right rear wheel. This car became very influential when the American Battery Company of Chicago purchased it for $3,600 to demonstrate their commercial version of the Morrison battery at the 1893 World's Columbian Exhibition. At the fair almost everyone who would be influential in early motoring history saw the carriage. ABC Secretary Harold Sturges replaced the rear seat with a larger battery, installed a different motor, and entered it in the Chicago race on Thanksgiving Day 1895. Due to five inches of fresh snow on the roads the car had little chance, the motor overheated in the first ten miles. The race version weighed 3,535 lbs. Major George Tyler Burroughs VP of ABC estimated that between Morrison and American Battery more than $20,000 had been invested in the car, all though he felt that production cost would be about $1,000 per car. The car was last seen in Kansas City MO. Morrison further developed batteries at the Vesta Accumulator Co., and in the summer of 1897 Sturges went to the Klondike to search for gold.

Motette 1900-1903 Canadian Motors Ltd. A two seat buggy.

National Electric 1900-1905 National Automobile and Electric Co, 2001 E. 22nd St, Indianapolis IN. Capitalized at two million by L.S. Dow from Indiana Bicycle Co. Arther C. Newby, Albert E. Metzger, and Charles E. Test. A Runabout and a Stanhope, later gasoline.

Namag 1912 German

New England 1899-1901 Electric Vehicle Co, Boston MA, Barrows design.

Ohio 1910-1918 Ohio Electric Car Co, Toledo OH. Henry P. Dodge, Rathbun Fuller, Henry E. Marvin, James B. Bell, and Robert E. Lee. The cars had Crocker-Wheeler motors. The early cars were built at the Milburn factory. The company pioneered dual drive cars (Fay O Farwell's pat. #727,923 of 1903) and featured solenoid actuators, rather then a knife switch or drum controller, with an electric brake all from the control knob. This was known as the Dodge Magnetic Controller, and was invented by the company's engineer Henry Dodge (December 7th, 1909 pat.#942,488). In 1914 they claimed "thousands of satisfied owners". After a few open cars the company focused on fancy Broughams for wealthy ladies.
1911: Model K Brougham, $2,900
Four models on 96" WB with bevel drive, Exide batteries, all seat 5 passengers.
Model L Colonial Brougham for $3,200.
Model M Brougham at $3,200.
Model O Semi-Colonial Brougham for $2,900.
Model Y Semi-Colonial Brougham for $3,500.
1914: Model 40 3 passenger Brougham.

Olds 1900-1901 Ransom E. Olds built a few steam, and 5-8 electric cars before settling on gasoline car production. Designed by Willis Grant Murray with Siemens & Erdman bodies, they used Eddy or Elwell-Parker Motors. One remains.
1900-1901: Stanhope, 2-passenger
Runabout, 2-passenger
Phaeton, 4-passenger

Oppermann 1898-1907 London England; with a proprietary battery.

Owen Magnetic
1914-1915 R. M. Owen Co New York, 1915-1920 Baker R & L Company, 1920-1921 R. M. Owen, again. Not an electric car or a pure hybrid, but a gas car with an electric transmission. W. C. Baker bought the 1897 Justus B. Entz patent from White in 1912 and licensed the rights to Raymond Owen. In October 1915 the R. M. Owen Company was folded into the Baker R & L Co and moved to Cleveland, where Owen became a VP with an equity position. Owen took the company back in 1920 and made the cars in Wilkes Barre PA. Fewer then a thousand cars were built, most with Rauch & Lang Bodies.

Parsons 1905-6 Parsons Electric Motor Carriage Co Cleveland OH,
Runabout, two-passenger, also a light delivery on the same platform

Phipps 1901-10 Phipps-Grinnell Automobile Co Detroit MI, 1910-1915 Grinnell

Pieper 1889-99 Campagnie Internationale d'electrite A Belgian gun manufacturer since 1867.
1896 Henri Pieper makes a gas/electric hybrid where one mode at a time was used. Known as the Auto-Mixte. The patent was licensed to Siemens-Schuckert, British Daimler Co, and Societe General d'Automobile Electro-Mecanique (GEM).

Pope Columbia, Waverley, Pope-Waverly.
1895-1898 The Pope Manufacturing Co. was the worlds most successful bicycle maker (since 1885) headed by Albert Augustus Pope, with relatives Harry M (super of Hartford Cycle Co), Edward W. & his cousin George. In 1895 VP Harold Hayden Eames hired Hiram Percy Maxim to design motorcars. He had built a three cylinder Otto cycle gas tricycle of his own design. Eames was certain that electric was the way to go and in 1896 had Maxim build two proto-types, the Mk I electric (with the motor on the axle), and Mk II two-stroke gasoline car (a failure). Ten production Columbia Electric Mk III cars were produced by May 1897. They weighed only 1,900 lbs. of which 800 lbs. was the battery, as they were built on carbon steel bicycle tube frames. The Mk III could go 30 miles at 12 mph powered by a two-horse Eddy motor that weighed 120 lbs. This was the first reliable commercially available automobile in North America, and for Col. Pope confirmed his belief that electric propulsion was the future of personal transportation. In early 1900 the company was taken over by the Electric Vehicle Co. as part of a scheme to create an electric cab monopoly. Pope was not the junior partner type and in June 1900 sold his interest in the cab conspiracy to EVC. He took the cash, and his bicycle companies, to form a conglomerate of some forty bicycle makers under the name American Bicycle Company, he also bought steam truck builder Lozier, and Waverly Electric. Pope's new empire was liquidated in 1907. Albert Pope died in August 1909. The Columbia brand continued as a gasoline car under various owners until 1912, Waverly continued making electrics under new owners until 1916.

See Columbia, Electric Vehicle Company, and Waverley

Rauch & Lang
1904-1915 Rauch & Lang Carriage Co.
1915-1920 Baker Rauch & Lang Co
1920-1930 Rauch & Lang Co. a subsidiary of Stevens-Duryea
1920-1945 Baker-Raulang Co, Bodies & material handlers.
The Rauch family had been a builder of wagons, then luxury carriages, in Cleveland since 1853. Founder Jacob Rauch was killed in the Civel War at Gettysburg, his son Charles Rauch teamed up with accountant Charles E. J. Lang, whose family made a fortune in the Cleveland real estate boom, to build the business into the principal maker of wagons and carriages in the region. In 1904 they decided to make luxury electric carriages. The motor and controller were from the Hertner Electric Co, which became part of R & L in 1907. In June of 1915, in part to settle infringements on Baker patents, R & L with a capitalization value of $1 million, merged with Baker, at a capitol value of $1.25 million, Owen Magnetic was folded into the mix along with fresh capitol from General Electric. The new company was called Baker Rauch & Lang, some of the Lang interests diverged as the Lang Body Co. In the winter of 1919-1920 the Company changed its name to Baker-Raulang with a body division and a material handling division (eventually absorbed by Otis Elevator). The automobile division was sold to Stevens-Duryea of Chicopee Falls Mass, they opened a subsidiary called Rauch & Lang Inc, which made electric cabs.

1904: A prototype is built.
1905: The first production car was a Stanhope; by the end of the year they had added coupes and depot wagons, some 50 cars sold in all.
1908: Stanhope $1,850, Coupe (2 pass) $2,100, Coupe (4 seat) $2,400, Surrey (5 seat) $3,000, Victoria (5 seat) $3,200, Brougham (6 seat) $4,000. 500 cars made.
1909: 1,000 Cars made.
1912: 600 Cars made, half with the new worm drive rear end.
1913: Model R-345 2 pass Roadster $2,600 and CR-345 2 pass Enclosed Roadster $2,800.
Model DB-325 Demi-Brougham 92" chassis, $2,800.
Model BB-545 4 pass Standard Brougham at $2,900.
Model CC-545 4 pass Colonial Brougham for $2,900.
Model T-545 5 pass Brougham $3,000.
Model J-545 5 pass Stretch Brougham, 103" chassis, $3,100.
All cars had a 4-horse power motor.

1914: Two Roadsters and two Broughams $2,950-3,800. Worm type shaft drive was introduced on some models, along with Duplex drive. The Broughams had interior lights that lit when the doors were open, and a cigarette lighter.

Baker-R & L Cars (sold as Rauch & Lang or Raulang).

1915: J-5 Coach. 102" wb, six speeds, electric motor-brake, tiller only.
R-5 Roadster
B-5 Brougham
TC-5 Town Coupe Front drive
1916: R-6 Roadster, rear drive 41 cell, 11 plate Battery.
CR series Roadster & Coupe.
B-6 Brougham, Rear drive.
BX 6 Brougham, Rear drive
1917: BX 7 Brougham, rear drive.
JX 7 Coach dual drive.
700 cars made.
1918: B26 Brougham. Rear drive
C-35 Coach, Duplex Drive
1919: B-36 Rear drive
C-45 Duplex drive
700 cars produced for the year

Rauch & Lang Inc. a diviaion of Stevens-Duryea, Chicopee falls, cars & taxies

1920: B-36
1921: B-46
1929-1930: Three prototype series hybrids with an Entz derived transfer case, badged as Rauch & Lang.

Red Bug 1924-1928 Made by the Automotive Electric Service Corp, Newark NJ. Then by the Standard Automobile Co of North Bergen, NJ.
Electric version of Briggs & Stratton gas buckboard. 24 volts (one wheel drive). Powered by a Northeast starter/generator. See Auto Red Bug and Smith Flyer.

Riker 1888-1899; Riker Electric Motor Co. NY, NY
1899-1900; Riker Electric Vehicle Co. Elizabethport, NJ
1901-1902; Electric Vehicle Co, New York.
Andrew Lawrence Riker; (October 22nd 1868 to June 1st 1930). In 1884-86 Riker made his first electric, a modified Coventry bicycle, with a large outrigger wheel driven by a 1/6 hp motor of his own manufacture. It was said to go 8 mph.
Riker set up business in 1888 making electric motors based on his patents, including his slotted armature and laminated field core designs. Between 1888 and 1890 he rigged two Remington bicycles together to create his four wheeled "motor cycle", it weighed 315 lbs. His company made a full range of electric vehicles from 1895-1902, from a light two-seat tricycle up to a five-ton truck. In 1896 he raced one of his production cars running up to 27 mph. Riker got faster. On November 16, 1901 at Coney Island NY the 1,850 lb Riker racer, with a 60-cell battery under a platform with no body, went a mile in 60.3 seconds (59.97 mph). The two motor Riker cars were made with a motor driving each rear wheel by means of a spur gear on the motor driving a ring gear on the wheel. While this is simple, efficient, and avoids the need for a differential, it means that the motors must be mounted in rigid alignment to the wheel. This creates a lot of un-sprung weight, a liability on all but the smoothest roads. The gears were exposed to abrasive dust and pebbles that would gum up the works, affecting longevity and reliability. The Electric Vehicle Company purchased Riker for stock in December 1900 for Riker's patents. The Elizabethport plant was closed late in 1901. Riker, distracted by steam and explosion engines, and not a team player, left EVC January 1st 1902 to design cars for Locomobile. The Riker brand was used for Locomobile trucks in the late teens.

1895: Two-passenger tricycle, Victoria, Piano Box runabout, light delivery.
1896: Tricycle; two passenger, with two front wheels and one rear drive wheel with an eighty lb. 1 hp motor on the rear wheel. It weighed 800 lbs, had three forward speeds by battery switching, and could go 20 mi at 12 mph.
The Light cars; two passenger, 2 hp, three speeds, 25-mile range at 12 mph. With 44 cell 66 Ampere-hour battery.

Three models; Victoria 1,800 lbs, Phaeton 1,880 lbs; Trap 1,600 lbs.
Four Passenger Dos-a-dos; 2,500 lbs, 3 hp motor 63" WB, 25 mi range at 12 mph.
Surrey; 4-5 passenger, 2,700 lbs, 4 speeds, 3 hp motor.
Delivery; 2 passenger & 800 lb load. 2,900 lbs, 4hp motor, 9mph.
Racing Trap #1, 2 passenger, 1,800 lbs, up to 40 mph, two 3hp motors bolted to the rear axle, with spur gears driving rear wheels, T bar steering, 32 cells, 100 Ampere-hours, $1,500.

1899: Dog Cart, 2; 1hp motors, 1,000 lbs, 24 cells, 60 Ampere-hours.
Mail Phaeton, 4 passenger, 2.7 hp motor, 44 cells, 90 Ampere-hours.
Brougham, two 2.7 hp motors, 4,000 lbs, 44 cells, 100 Ampere-hours.
Demi-Coach outside rear driving position, two 2.7 hp motors, 48 cells.
Altman Delivery, two 2.7 hp motors, 44 cells, 125 Ampere-hours.
Theatre Bus, 12 passenger, 44 cells, 150 Ampere-hours.
Heavy Truck, 8,000 lbs, 4" wide solid rubber or steel wheels.
1900: Electric Vehicle Company buys Riker.
1901: Riker Racer
1902: Hansom Cab $3,200
Square Front Brougham, outside front drive. $3,100
Extension Front Brougham, underslung battery. $2,700
Hotel Bus $4,000
Delivery truck $3,300

Roberts 1897, C. E. Roberts of Chicago Steel Screw Co. 20 mph for 50 miles. Two 2-hp motors directly driving the rear axels. The leather-lined brakes were inside the motor housings. There was a second model with one motor on the rear axel and brake drums at the rear wheels. Both were Stanhopes.

Scheele 1899-1910 Heinrich Scheele; Cologne, Germany. Full range of models

Scott 1901-1903. Scott Automobile Co, St Louis, bought St Louis Electric Auto.

Siemens/Protos 1912 German. Werner von Siemens (inventor of the modern armature)

Slattery 1889 Fort Wayne Jenny Electric Light Co. M M M Slattery built an electric tricycle with a shunt wound motor.

Smith Flyer 1916 A O Smith Co built this early version of the Auto Red Bug.

Sperry 1900 Cleveland Screw Co, Elmer Ambrose Sperry. Electric car patent filed 1898, awarded 1900. Sperry was a Cornell grad and worked on electric rail design he invented gasoline and electric cars, motors, generators, and batteries. In 1896 he was working on a two-cylinder gasoline car, but spilled gas and burned down his shop. Two years later he produced electric runabouts and a phone booth like coupe. Sperry went on to make significant contributions in mechanized coal mining and the gyrocompass.

Standard 1911-1915 Standard Car Manufacturing Co, Jackson, MI, Westinghouse motors.
1911 Model M Coupe, $1850, with a drop frame and shaft drive.
1913 Model M Coupe, 4-pass $1885, 96" chassis, Exide battery, bevel drive.
1914 Model M Coupe, Now only $1,990.

Steinmetz 1920-1923 Steinmetz Electric Motor Corp, Baltimore MD, prototypes

Still 1893 W J Still Toronto, Canada.

Strong & Rogers 1900-01 Strong & Rogers Co, Cleveland OH, Elwell-Parker motor/controller

St Louis Electric Automobile Co 1899-1901, Founded by publisher and auto-parts dealer A. L. Dyke, the company made a small number of electric and gas cars. Purchased 1901 by Scott.

1902-1912, Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Co, South Bend IN. 1,841 electric cars were made before they went gas only. Studebaker became a Corporation in 1911.

1890: Studebaker is worlds largest wagon and carriage co.
1899: Studebaker gets a large contract to make bodies for the EVC lead cabs.
1902: Runabout with a twenty-cell battery, full elliptical springs, chain drive. 20 cars are made the first year. Edison bought the second one made.
1904: Hayden Eames (who likely gave the EVC body contract to Studebaker) of Columbia, EVC, and Westinghouse, with some of his favorite engineers, sets up shop as general manager.
17-B-C-D-E Coupe, Landaulet, Victoria Phaeton, Standing Front Landaulet
A gasoline car is introduced, with the mechanicals by General and then the Garford Motor Co, both of Cleveland, known as the Studebaker-Garford, till 1911.
1908: 16-D Victoria Phaeton
17-B Coupe
22-A & C Runabout & Stanhope
2006-E Omnibus, 14-passenger, two motors, 5,500 lbs
2008 Omnibus weighing 2,500 lbs.
1909: The cars are still chain drive.
13-A Suburban Stanhope (faster). 73" wheelbase.
17-B-D-E Coupe, Victoria Phaeton, or Landaulet. 71" wheelbase.
22-A-C-F Runabout, Stanhope Phaeton, Coupe. 67" wheelbase
1911: Studebaker forms a new partnership for gas car platforms with the EMF Corporation. The "F" was for Walter Flanders; part of the empire was the Flanders Electric. Studebaker took over EMF in 1912 and spun off the Flanders.
1912: Last year for electrics. Studebaker built bodies for the Flanders Electric 'til 1915.

Syracuse 1899-1903 Syracuse Automobile Co, Syracuse NY. Designed by William Van Wagoner.

Thompson 1901-1902 Andrew C. Thompson, Plainfield, NJ. Another little Runabout

Thury 1904 Geneva, Switzerland. Parallel hybrid. The car had a shunt wound motor.

Tiffany 1913-4 Flint MI, Le Roy Pelletier took over the Flanders electric car company and made two models under the name Tiffany, a DeLuxe and a Mignon priced at $750. After a brief time he reverted to the Flanders brand but sales were poor.

Triblehorn 1902-1918 Swiss, mostly delivery trucks, some cars

Triumph Electric 1900-01 Chicago IL. A Stanhope.

US Electric 1899-1901 US Automobile Co, Attleboro, MA two and four seat Runabouts

VE 1903-1905 Vehicle Equipment Co. Long Island NY, maker of commercial vehicles they made a three seat Runabout for a few years.

Victor 1907-1908 Omaha Nebraska, high wheeled buggies. One remaining.

Walker 1907-1916 Walker Vehicle Co, Chicago IL.
1916-1920 Anderson Electric Car Co. Detroit MI
1920-1933 Commonwealth Edison. Chicago IL
1933 Yale & Towne.
Maker of the Walker Electric Truck, and the Chicago Electric car.

Ward 1888-1896 Ward Electrical Car Company, London.
Founded by Radcliff Ward who designed a battery bus, he then hired Walter C Bersey as his chief engineer. The company had an exhibit at the Worlds Columbian Exposition (1893). In 1896 big capitol came in to build a lead bus/cab syndicate for London and the name was changed to the London Electric Omnibus Company.

Ward 1914-1916, Ward Motor Vehicle Co. New York NY.
Charles A Ward spun this company off his family's bread bakery. Primarily an electric truck manufacturer. After Hayden Eames joined the company Ward made electric cars 1914-1916, Trucks to 1937.

Waverley 1898-1899. Indiana Bicycle Co, Indianapolis IN.
1900-1902 American Bicycle Co, (Pope) Indianapolis IN.
1902-1904 International Motor Car Co, Indianapolis
Pope-Waverly 1904-1908 Pope Motor Car Co, Indianapolis
Waverley 1908-1916 The Waverly Co. 101 & 141 S. East St. Indianapolis, IN.
The car was based on C. E. Woods' American Electric. And Indiana Bicycle Co with Elmer Sperry's patents merged as one of Popes many companies in 1899 (the Columbia brand stayed with EVC). In 1907 both the Pope empire, and the previous house of cards, EVC, went belly up. An investment group led by the in-house management made the cars independently till 1916. The company made their own motors.

1898-1901: Piano Box runabout $1,000-, Stanhope $1,500-, Combination Wagon $1,350-, Delivery $1,600-.
1900-1904: 1 Runabout $1,200
2 Runabout with top $1,275
3 Stanhope $1,900
4 4-Passenger Break $1,800
5 Combination Delivery $1,750
6 Newport Break $2,200
7, 8, & 9 Dos-a-dos $1,250-$1,650
10 Mail Phaeton $2,400-
11 Nine Passenger Break $3,000
12 Demi-coach $4,000
14, 15, 16, & 17 Deliveries $2,000-$2,500.
18,19 Road Wagon $1,000 & Road Wagon with top $1,075.
20 A Surrey $1,400
21,22 Road Wagon $850, with Cape Top $925
23, 24 Delivery van, $1,600, truck $1,400
25 Tonneau $1,800
26 Chelsea Coupe, $1,250
27 Victoria stanhope, $1,400
28 Special Wagon $1,800
29 Physicians Roadwagon $1,100
30 Station Wagon, $2,000.
36 Speed Road Wagon $900-
41 Road Wagon
1908: Waverley introduces shaft drive with bevel gear.
1909: Models 26, 26-C and 30 were still offered.
53 Stanhope $1,800. 53-C Stanhope $2,000
60 Surrey $1,900
69 Road Wagon $1,225
70 Victoria $1,700 70-C Victoria Coupe $1,900
71 Runabout $1,400
75 Victoria Phaeton $1,850
75-C Four pass Coupe, removable top $2,150.
1910: 69 Runabout $1,225
74 Stanhope $1,600
75-B Victoria $1,950
75-C Four pass Brougham, $2,250
76 Victoria Phaeton, $1,750
78 Roadster, $1,700
81 Special Brougham $2,600
1912: 74 Stanhope $1,600
88 Limousine-Five $3,500
91 Four pass Brougham; three seats in the back (the middle recessed) and a "cozy corner" at right front. $2,800. Available with Forty cell Exide Hycap, Philadelphia M. V. style, thirteen plate Gould, or Waverley M V style batteries. At extra charge Exide Ironclad or Edison batteries were offered
92 Surrey $1,900
93 3-Passenger Coupe $2,150
95 Brougham $2,400
96 Victoria Phaeton $1,850
1913: 90 3-passenger Roadster
97 Colonial Brougham 4-pass $2,375
99 Georgian Brougham 5-pass, $3,250
100 Limousine 4-passenger, $2,900
101 Limousine 5-passenger, $3,500
1915: 90 Three Passenger Roadster/Coupe $2,000
104 four Passenger Brougham, Front drive, $2,400
105 Rear Drive, $2,300
106 Dual Drive, $2,500
108 Limousine-Five, $3,000
109 Four Chair Brougham, $2,750
1916: 90 Roadster $2,150
109 Four-Chair Brougham, $2,200

Williams 1906-1907 Cleveland OH, originally built as the DeMars the Williams enclosed the dual chain drive and added safety features. A few gas cars were also built.

Woods 1899 Woods Motor Vehicle Co, Chicago Illinois.
1899-1919 Fischer Equipment Company, 20th St, Chicago IL.
Clinton Edgar Woods wrote the first book on electric vehicles. This was Woods' second company, after American Electric. He lost his equity position the second time when Samuel Insull (Commonwealth Edison), August Belmont (NY subway), and an investment syndicate with a number of Standard Oil investors, took over the unprofitable company for the purpose of challenging the Electric Vehicle Company's lead cab monopoly attempt. They re-capitalized the company at 10 million and things picked up for awhile. Woods continued as consulting engineer. The Woods Company built their own motors. The bodies were made by the Fisher Equipment Co. Willard, with Sipe and Sigler, made the batteries. C Sinsabaugh estimated the company made 1,000 cars.

1899: 30 styles were advertised including a Road Wagon, Victoria, and Brougham.
1911: 5 pass Brougham
1913: Model 1320 2 pass Roadster $2,400
Model 1319 4 pass Victoria $2,500
4 models of Broughams, from $2,700 to $3,600.
1916-1918: Hybrid "Woods Dual Power" car that was a gas/electric. $2,700.